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Sulfur Concrete for the Construction Industry


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Table of Contents

PrefaceAbout the AuthorsChapter 1Sustainable Development for the Construction Industry1.1 Introduction1.2 Sustainable development 1.2.1 Social sustainability 1.2.2 Environmental sustainability 1.2.3 Economic sustainability 1.2.4 Land sustainability1.3 Role of technology 1.3.1 Characteristics of a sustainable technology1.4 A frame work for sustainable industry 1.4.1 Current system 1.4.2 Modified system1.5 Sustainability and the building construction industry1.6 Strategies for implementing sustainable design and construction 1.6.1 Minimizing consumption 1.6.2 Satisfying human needs and aspirations 1.6.3 Avoiding negative environmental impacts1.7 Sustainability and project procurement lifecycle 1.7.1 Sustainable business justification 1.7.2 Sustainable procurement process 1.7.3 Sustainable design 1.7.4 Sustainable construction process 1.7.5 Sustainable management and operation of the facility 1.7.6 Sustainable disposal and re-use of the site1.8 Summary and concluding remarksChapter 2Sulfur Production and Uses2.1 Introduction2.2 Global sulfur cycle 2.2.1 The natural sulfur cycle 2.2.2 The anthropogenic sulfur cycle2.3 Sulfur supply 2.3.1 Sulfur production and processes2.4 Sulfur trade2.5 Sulfur demand2.6 Sulfur uses 2.6.1 Sulfuric acid 2.6.2 Agricultural chemicals 2.6.3 Chemical and industrial 2.6.4 Construction industry 2.6.5 Ore processing 2.6.6 Petroleum alkylation 2.6.7 Pulp and paper 2.6.8 Waste management 2.6.9 Pharmaceutical industry2.7 Environmental issues 2.7.1 Production and processing 2.7.2 Health effects of sulfur 2.7.3 Effects of sulfur on the environment 2.7.4 Sulfur waste management2.8 Summary and concluding remarksChapter 3Sulfur Properties3.1 Introduction3.2 Occurrence3.3 Processes3.4 Elemental sulfur forms 3.4.1 Liquid sulfur allotropes 3.4.2 Solid sulfur allotropes3.5 Properties of elemental sulfur 3.5.1 Melting and freezing points 3.5.2 Viscosity 3.5.3 Density 3.5.4 Color 3.5.5 Strength characteristics 3.5.6 Thermal characteristics 3.5.7 Allotropic transformation 3.5.8 Polymerization3.6 Chemical properties 3.6.1 Electronic structure 3.6.2 Oxidation states 3.6.3 Chemical reactions of elemental sulfur 3.6.4 Chemical reactions of sulfur with olefins 3.6.5 Chemical reactions of sulfur compounds 3.6.6 Biological reactions of sulfur compounds3.7 Thermal properties3.8 Electrical properties3.9 Isotopes3.10 Potential ecological effects of elemental sulfur3.11 Products 3.11.1 Product groups 3.11.2 Practical applications3.12 Summary and concluding remarksChapter 4Elemental Sulfur Concrete4.1 Introduction4.2 History of sulfur concrete development4.3 Terminology4.4 Compressive strength 4.4.1 Strength development for Portland cement concrete 4.4.2 Strength reduction for Portland cement concrete 4.4.3 Strength development for elemental sulfur concrete4.5 Material composition 4.5.1 Elemental sulfur 4.5.2 Aggregates 4.5.3 ACI guide for material selection4.6 Durability 4.6.1 Effect of sulfur loading, aggregate type, and different admixtures 4.6.2 Effect of water and temperature4.7 Summary and concluding remarksChapter 5Sulfur Cement5.1 Introduction5.2 Development background5.3 Terminology5.4 Modified sulfur 5.4.1 Mechanism 5.4.2 Types 5.4.3 Modification conditions5.5 Industrial modified sulfur cement 5.5.1 Sulfur modified with dicyclopentadiene 5.5.2 Sulfur modified with dicyclopentadiene and an oligomer of cyclopentadiene 5.5.3 Sulfur modified with styrene 5.5.4 Sulfur modified with a combination of DCPD and styrene 5.5.5 Sulfur modified with olefinic hydrocarbon polymers 5.5.6 Sulfur modified with bitumen 5.5.7 Sulfur modified with 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB) 5.6 Sulfur cement5.7 Factors controlling formation of sulfur cement5.8 Standard testing of sulfur cement5.9 Advantages and disadvantages of sulfur cement 5.9.1 Advantages 5.9.2 Disadvantages5.10 Summary and concluding remarksChapter 6Sulfur Concrete6.1 Introduction6.2 Terminology6.3 Development of sulfur concrete6.4 Composition 6.4.1 Sulfur 6.4.2 Chemical additives 6.4.3 Mineral fillers 6.4.4 Aggregates6.5 Sulfur concrete requirements 6.5.1 Binder requirements 6.5.2 Mix design requirements6.6 Manufacturing equipment and methods6.7 Recommended testing6.8 Advantages of using sulfur concrete6.9 Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) modified sulfur concrete 6.9.1 DCPD loadings and aggregate type 6.9.2 Storage time 6.9.3 Thermal stability6.10 Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) - cyclopentadiene oligomer (CPDO) modified sulfur concrete 6.10.1 Effect of mix composition on strength 6.10.2 Effect of freeze-thaw on strength6.11 Olefinic hydrocarbon polymer modified sulfur concrete6.12 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB) modified sulfur concrete 6.12.1 Weight loss in alkaline environment 6.12.2 Compressive strength in alkaline environment 6.12.3 Ignition and biological oxidation6.13 Bitumen modified sulfur concrete (BMSC) 6.13.1 Production of BMSC 6.13.2 Thermal stability 6.13.3 Effect of sulfur ratio and loading 6.13.4 Microstructure characterization 6.13.5 Strength development 6.13.6 Reaction products 6.13.7 Durability 6.13.8 Hydraulic conductivity 6.13.9 Long-term hydro-mechanical behavior 6.13.10 Leachability6.14 Potential ecological effects of sulfur concrete6.15 Summary and concluding remarksChapter 7Technological Aspects of Sulfur Concrete Production7.1 Introduction7.2 Sulfur concrete production 7.2.1 The 1970s 7.2.2 The 1980s 7.2.3 The 1990s 7.2.4 The 2000s7.3 Mix design7.4 Mixing process7.5 Equipment 7.5.1 Development 7.5.2 Commercial scale application7.6 Manufacturing 7.6.1 Pre-cast mixing and production 7.6.2 In situ construction mixing and placing techniques 7.6.3 Placing and finishing 7.6.4 Cold weather placements 7.6.5 Wind and moisture 7.6.6 Repairing damages 7.6.7 Joints and joint sealing 7.6.8 Forming and reinforcement7.7 Energy requirement 7.7.1 Heating process 7.7.2 Recovery process 7.7.3 Cooling process7.8 Durability issues 7.8.1 Type of fillers and aggregates 7.8.2 Water absorption 7.8.3 Frost resistance 7.8.4 Service temperature 7.8.5 Fire load 7.8.6 Crazing resistance 7.8.7 Creep 7.8.8 Fatigue strength 7.8.9 Reinforcement 7.8.10 Abrasion resistance 7.8.11 Chemical resistance 7.8.12 Corrosion potential7.9 Service life 7.9.1 ISO approach 7.9.2 Estimation of sulfur concrete service life7.10 Sulfur concrete assessment protocol7.11 Summary and concluding remarksChapter 8Sulfur Modified Asphalt8.1 Introduction8.2 Asphalt 8.2.1 Asphalt composition 8.2.2 Asphalt fractionation 8.2.3 Asphalt component interaction 8.2.4 Asphalt aging 8.2.5 Lime modified asphalt8.3 Sulfur modified asphalt 8.3.1 Beneficial use of sulfur modified asphalt 8.3.2 Sulfur asphalt history 8.3.3 Sulfur behavior in liquid state 8.3.4 Sulfur asphalt interaction 8.3.5 Sulfur asphalt mix concepts 8.3.6 Rheology of sulfur asphalt binder8.4 Sulfur asphalt processing technology 8.4.1 Manufacturing evaluation 8.4.2 Preparation apparatus for sulfur asphalt binders 8.4.3 Premixing 8.4.4 Sulfur asphalt module 8.4.5 Mix production 8.4.6 Construction procedure 8.4.7 Safety and the environment 8.4.8 Emissions8.5 Improved performance8.6 Sulfur to asphalt ratios and properties 8.6.1 Sulfur to asphalt ratio 8.6.2 Sulfur modified asphalt characteristics 8.6.3 Hydrogen sulfide emission control8.7 Sulfur asphalt development 8.7.1 Sand-asphalt-sulfur (SAS) 8.7.2 Sulfur-extended-asphalt (SEA) 8.8 Sulfur extended asphalt and traditional asphalt materials8.9 Plasticized sulfur 8.9.1 Plasticization concept 8.9.2 Chemicals used for plasticization of sulfur 8.9.3 Plasticizing agent requirement 8.9.4 Plasticization perceptions 8.9.5 Plasticized mixing conditions 8.9.6 Case studies for plasticization of sulfur8.10 Potential ecological effects8.11 Summary and concluding remarksIndex

About the Author

Professor A. M. O. Mohamed earned his M. Eng. and Ph.D. from McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Prof. Mohamed was the Associate Director of the Geotechnical Research Centre (GRC) and an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics at McGill University. In 1998, he joined the United Arab Emirates (UAE) University, where he is currently the Director of Research, Research Affairs Sector, and Professor of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Professor Mohamed has published more than 200 papers in refereed journals and conference proceedings.

Dr. Maisa El Gamal received her M.Sc. degree in material science from Alexandria University, Egypt and her Ph.D. in polymer science from Tanta University, Egypt. In 2000, she joined the Research Affair Sector, United Arab Emirates University, where she is currently employed as a senior research associate. Dr. El Gamal's research interests are related to soil stabilization, waste solidification and stabilization, polymer science, polymer technology, material science, and controlled release formulations.

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