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Brief Contents Preface THE BASICS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING INTRODUCING PUBLIC SPEAKING What Is Public Speaking? Why Study Public Speaking? Using Public Speaking as a Student Video 1.1: "Gender-Based Responses in Sports Chatrooms" Using Public Speaking in Your Career Using Public Speaking in Your Community Public Speaking: A Great Tradition Public Speaking: A Dynamic Discipline From Linear to Transactional: Evolving Views of the Public Speaking Process New Technologies, New Channels Awareness of Audiences' Cultural Diversity Video 1.2: "Humanity 4 Haitian Development" Emphasis on Critical Thinking A Focus on Free, Engaged, and Ethical Communication Chapter Review DEVELOPING YOUR FIRST SPEECH Why Prepare? The Classical Approach to Speech Preparation Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech Analyze Your Audience Select Your Topic Determine Your Speech's Rhetorical Purpose Create a Thesis Statement Determine Your Main Points Video 2.1: "Previews, Transitions, and Summaries" Develop Supporting Materials Organize and Outline the Body of Your Speech Outline Your Introduction and Conclusion Key Term: Introduction Key Term: Conclusion Incorporate Transitions Key Term: Transition Consider Your Word Choice Consider Presentation Aids Practice Your Speech Key Term: Extemporaneous Delivery Video 2.2: "Lui, Preventing Cyberbullying" Deliver Your Speech Video 2.3: "Gentz, My Hero, Marilyn Hamilton" Overcoming Speech Anxiety Prepare Early and Follow a Plan Practice Your Speech Take Care of Yourself Visualize Success Use Relaxation Techniques Check Out Some Apps Volunteer to Speak First Never Defeat Yourself Chapter Review Video 2.4: "Garza, How to Buy a Guitar" SPEECH ETHICS Codes of Ethics: Absolute, Situational, and Culturally Relative Legal Speech vs. Ethical Speech Communicating Truthfully Lying Half-Truths False Inference Acknowledging the Work of Others Video 3.1: "Citing Sources (Statistics and Testimony)" Quoting from a Source Video 3.2: "Citing Someone Else's Idea" Paraphrasing the Work of Others Key Term: Paraphrasing Common Knowledge Using Sound Reasoning Being an Ethical Listener Show Courtesy Demonstrate an Open Mind Hold the Speaker Accountable Chapter Review LISTENING SKILLS The Listening Process Listening vs. Hearing Processing What You've Heard Retaining What You've Processed Listening Styles The Culprits behind Poor Listening Unprocessed Note Taking Nonlistening Interruptive Listening Agenda-Driven Listening Argumentative Listening Nervous Listening Becoming a Better Listener Filter Out Distractions Focus on the Speaker Show That You Are Paying Attention Maximizing Your Audience's Listening Anticipate Ineffective Listening before Your Speech Encourage Active Listening during Your Speech Listening When You Are in the Audience Chapter Review AUDIENCE ANALYSIS Understanding Situational Characteristics Size Time Location Mobility Incorporating Demographics Key Term Video: Demographics Age Video 5.1: "Poplin, The Importance of Community Service and Civic Engagement" Gender Composition Video 5.2: "Singh, The Importance of Playing Sports Has Grown over Time" Sexual Orientation Race and Ethnicity Religious Orientation Socioeconomic Background Political Affiliation Putting the Demographic Pieces Together Seeking Common Ground Video 5.3: "Kim, The Non-monetary Use of Gold" Identifying Prior Exposure Identifying Audience Disposition Gathering Information about Your Audience Surveying Your Audience Interviewing Your Audience Considering and Observing Your Audience Situational Audience Analysis Chapter Review SELECTING YOUR TOPIC Developing a Set of Potential Topics Research Brainstorming Word Association Mind Mapping Selecting the Best Topic Consider the Assignment Consider Your Audience Consider Your Knowledge and Interests Video 6.1 "Humanity 4 Haitian Development" Consider the Speech Context Choose a Topic and Stick with It Refining Your Topic Decide Your Rhetorical Purpose Narrow Your Topic Video 6.2: "Overused Topic (Needs Improvement)" Drafting Your Specific Purpose Drafting Your Thesis Statement Key Term: Thesis Statement Video 6.3: "Thesis Statement" and "Thesis Statement: Needs Focus (Needs Improvement)" Chapter Review Video 6.4: "Gentz, My Hero, Marilyn Hamilton" RESEARCHING YOUR SPEECH Research Is Essential Video 7.1: "Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room" Research Works Best When You Have a Plan Inventory Your Research Needs Find the Sources You Need Keep Track of Your Sources Key Term Video: Citation Evaluating a Source's Credibility Expertise Objectivity Observational Capacity Recency Video 7.2: "Citing Sources (Statistics and Testimony)" Conducting Library Research Books Periodicals Newspapers Reference Works Government Documents Using the Internet Benefits of Internet Research Disadvantages of Internet Research Evaluating the Credibility of Online Sources Credibility of Social Media Searching the World Wide Web Interviewing Sources Prepare for Your Interview Set Up Your Interview Plan Your Interview Questions Conduct the Interview Evaluate Your Notes Presenting Evidence in Your Speeches Clearly Cite Your Source Present the Information Accurately Key Term Video: Paraphrase Video 7.3: "Citing Sources (Statistics)" Chapter Review Video 7.4: "Kruckenberg, John Kanzius and the Quest to Cure Cancer" USING SUPPORTING MATERIALS FOR YOUR SPEECH Key Term: Supporting Materials Why Use Supporting Materials? Building Audience Interest Enhancing Audience Understanding Strengthening Audience Memory Winning Audience Agreement Evoking Audience Emotion Types of Supporting Materials Examples Key Term: Example Definitions Testimony Key Term: Testimony Video 8.1: "Royzpal, Litter" Statistics Key Term: Statistic Video 8.2: "Citing Sources (Statistics and Facts)" Narratives Key Term: Narrative Analogies Key Term: Analogy Guidelines for Using Supporting Materials Choose the Most Credible Proof Use a Variety of Supporting Materials Appeal to Different Learning Styles Avoid Long Lists Consider Your Audience Video 8.3: "Examples (Humorous)" Respect the Available Time Chapter Review Video 8.4: "Kim, The Nonmonetary Uses of Gold" ORGANIZING YOUR SPEECH Selecting Your Main Points Consider Your Purpose Take Your Audience into Account Select an Appropriate Number of Main Points Organizing Your Supporting Materials Subordination and Coordination Video 9.1: "Without Liberty and Justice for All" When a Subpoint Doesn't Fit Arranging Your Main Points Spatial Pattern Key Term: Spatial Pattern Chronological (Temporal) Pattern Key Term: Chronological (Temporal) Pattern Causal Pattern Key Term: Causal Pattern Comparison Pattern Categorical (Topical) Pattern Key Term: Categorical (Topical) Pattern Video 9.2: "Singh, The Importance of Playing Sports Has Grown over Time" Persuasive Speech Patterns Using Organizing Words, Phrases, and Sentences Transitions Key Term: Transition Video 9.3: "Patterns of Arrangement: Causal" Signposts Internal Previews and Internal Summaries Chapter Review Video Activity 9.4: "List, Gender-Based Responses in Sports Chat Rooms" INTRODUCTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS Introducing Your Speech Gain Your Audience's Attention Key Term: Attention-Getter Key Term: Rhetorical Question Video 10.1: "Anecdote (Personal) in an Informative Introduction" Signal Your Thesis Show Your Audience What's in It for Them Establish Your Credibility Preview Your Main Points Key Term: Preview Video 10.2: "Attention-Getter, Support, Creative Preview" Concluding Your Speech Transition to Your Conclusion Summarize Your Main Points Finish with a Memorable Clincher Key Term: Clincher Video 10.3: "Clincher: Evokes Response" Chapter Review Video Activity 10.4: "Full Introduction: Attention-Getter, Thesis, and Preview" and "Full Conclusion" OUTLINING YOUR SPEECH Two Stages of Outlining The Detailed Outline The Speaking Outline Key Term: Extemporaneous Delivery Creating Your Detailed Outline Outlining the Body of Your Speech Key Term: Transition Video 11.1: "Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room" Outlining Your Introduction Key Term: Introduction Outlining Your Conclusion Key Term: Conclusion Video 11.2: "Without Liberty and Justice for All" Creating a List of References Inserting the Title, Specific Purpose, and Thesis A Sample Detailed Outline Creating Your Speaking Outline Elements of Your Speaking Outline Video 11.3: "Rate: Too Fast (Needs Improvement)" The Medium for Your Speaking Outline A Sample Speaking Outline Chapter Review Video 11.4 "DuBoise, Central Texas Coalition against Human Trafficking" LANGUAGE AND STYLE The Importance of Language and Word Choice Differences between Oral and Written Language Denotative and Connotative Meaning Denotative Meaning Connotative Meaning Presenting Your Message Clearly Understandable Language Concrete Words Proper Use of Words Concise Language Expressing Your Ideas Effectively Repetition Hypothetical Examples Personal Anecdotes Vivid Language Video 12.1: "Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room" Figurative Language Key Term: Figurative Language Key Term: Antithesis Key Term: Simile Key Term: Metaphor Video 12.2: "Gender-Based Responses in Sports Chatrooms" (simile) Video 12.3: "Gender-Based Responses in Sports Chatrooms" (metaphor) Choosing Respectful and Unbiased Language Avoid Stereotypes Use Gender-Neutral References Make Appropriate References to Ethnic Groups Steer Clear of Unnecessary References to Ethnicity, Religion, Gender, or Sexuality A Note on Appropriate Language and Political Correctness Chapter Review DELIVERING YOUR SPEECH Key Term: Delivery Selecting the Right Mode of Delivery Reading from a Manuscript Memorizing from a Manuscript Speaking from an Outline Impromptu Speaking Key Term: Impromptu Delivery Using Verbal Delivery Skills Volume Key Term: Volume Tone Rate of Delivery Key Term: Rate of Delivery Video 13.1: "Rate Too Fast (Needs Improvement)" Projection Articulation Pronunciation Key Term: Pronunciation Pausing Key Term: Verbal Filler Using Nonverbal Delivery Skills Eye Contact Key Term: Eye Contact Gestures Key Term: Gesture Video 13.2: "Gestures: Overly Scripted (Needs Improvement)" Physical Movement Key Term: Physical Movement Proxemics Personal Appearance Key Term: Personal Appearance Chapter Review USING PRESENTATION AIDS Why Use Presentation Aids? Presentation Aids Can Make Your Speech More Interesting Presentation Aids Can Simplify a Complex Topic Presentation Aids Can Help Your Audience Remember Your Speech Types of Presentation Aids The Speaker Assistants Objects Visual Images Graphs Text-Based Visuals Audio and Video Using Technology Wisely Using Presentation Software Key Term: Presentation Software Using Other Technology Guidelines for Developing Presentation Aids Consider the Forum Consider Your Audience Make Sure Your Aids Support Your Points Keep Your Aids Simple and Clear Rehearse with Your Presentation Aids Video 14.1: "Presentation Software: Checking Beforehand (Needs Improvement)" Using Presentation Aids during Your Speech Make Sure Everyone Can See and Hear Your Aids Control Audience Interaction with Your Aids Maintain Eye Contact Video 14.2: "Presentation Software (Needs Improvement)" Remember the Purpose of Your Aids Chapter Review MEDIATED PUBLIC SPEAKING The Rise of Mediated Communication The Expansion of Mediated Public Speaking Prerecorded and Real-Time Presentations Advantages of Mediated Presentations General Advantages Advantages of Prerecorded Speeches Advantages of Real-Time Technologies Video 15.1: "McAlister, Arsenic in Our Water Supply" Challenges of Mediated Presentations Loss of Naturalness Loss of Immediacy Decreased Nonverbal Communication Diminished Feedback Difficulty Managing Distractions Technological Difficulties Optimizing Delivery and Messages in Mediated Presentations Delivery Considerations Message Adaptations Practicing Delivery and Recording Recording Your Classroom Speech Camera Setting and Background Video 15.2: "Attention-Getter (Needs Improvement)" Attire Camera Positioning Video 15.3: "Fallacy: Red Herring (Needs Improvement)" Special Considerations for Real-Time Presentations Practicing with Your Equipment to Make Sure It Works Selecting a Robust Internet Connection Using Group Chat/Video and Screen Sharing Creating Opportunities for Audience Interaction Soliciting Feedback through an Alternative Medium Chapter Review Video Activity 15.4: "Gentz, My Hero, Marilyn Hamilton" INFORMATIVE SPEAKING Techniques for Informing Definition Key Term: Definition Explanation Key Term: Explanation Description Key Term: Description Demonstration Key Term: Demonstration Video 16.1: "Garza, How to Buy a Guitar" Narrative Key Term: Narrative Video 16.2: "Conveying Information: Narrative (Needs Improvement)" Types of Informative Speeches Objects Individuals or Groups Events Processes Video 16.3: "Conveying Information: Description" Ideas Developing Your Informative Speech Analyzing Your Audience Key Term: Demographics Selecting a Technique Focusing on Your Goal to Inform Clarifying and Simplifying Your Message Sample Informative Speech Rachel Parish, Spider Silk: A Miracle Material Derived from . . . Goats? Chapter Review PERSUASIVE SPEAKING The Nature of a Persuasive Speech Persuasive Speeches Attempt to Influence Audience Members Persuasive Speeches Advocate Fact, Value, or Policy Claims Key Term: Fact Claim Key Term: Policy Claim Video 17.1: "Claims: Policy" and "Claims: Fact" The Nature of Persuasion Two Paths to Persuasion The Importance of Central Route Processing Which Route Will Audience Members Follow? Tailoring Your Persuasive Message to the Audience Adapting to Audience Disposition Appealing to Your Audience's Needs Connecting to Your Listeners' Values Accounting for Audience Beliefs Focusing on Peripheral Beliefs Demonstrating How Your Audience Benefits Acknowledging Listeners' Reservations Ethical Persuasion Help Your Audience Make an Informed Decision Research Your Facts Note Any Biases Attribute Your Research Properly Organizing Your Persuasive Speech Organizing Fact Claims Organizing Value Claims Organizing Policy Claims Key Term: Motivated Sequence Video 17.2: "Patterns of Arrangement, Monroe's Motivated Sequence" Key Term: Problem-Cause-Solution Pattern Chapter Review Video Activity 17.3: "Martinez, Extra Credit You Can Live Without" METHODS OF PERSUASION Ethos: Your Credibility as a Speaker Understanding the Elements of Credibility Building Your Credibility Avoiding Loss of Your Credibility Logos: The Evidence and Reasoning behind Your Message Key Term: Logos Using Evidence Using Reasoning Key Term: Inductive Reasoning Video 18.1: "Reasoning: Inductive" Avoiding Logical Fallacies Key Term: Hasty Generalization Key Term: Ad Populum (Bandwagon) Fallacy Key Term: Ad Hominem (Personal Attack) Fallacy Key Term: Slippery Slope Fallacy Key Term: False Dilemma Fallacy Video 18.2: "Fallacy: Either-Or (False Dilemma): Diplomacy vs. WWIII (Needs Improvement)" Pathos: Evoking Your Listeners' Emotions Key Term: Pathos Using Emotional Appeals Video 18.3: "Claims: Fact (Appeals to Emotion and Credibility)" Ensuring Ethical Use of Pathos Sample Persuasive Speech Anna Martinez, Extra Credit You Can Live Without Chapter Review Video 18.4: "Morales, Without Liberty and Justice for All" SPECIAL-OCCASION SPEAKING Types of Special-Occasion Speeches General Guidelines for Special-Occasion Speeches Appealing to Your Audience's Emotions Video 19.1: "Gentz, My Hero, Marilyn Hamilton" Matching Your Delivery to the Mood of the Occasion Adapting to Your Audience's Expectations Evoking Shared Values Video 19.2: "Language, Delivery, and Special-Occasion Speeches" Respecting Time Constraints Strategies for Each Type of Special-Occasion Speech Strategies for Speeches of Introduction Strategies for Speeches of Presentation Strategies for Speeches of Acceptance Strategies for Speeches to Memorialize or Eulogize Strategies for Speeches to Celebrate Strategies for After-Dinner Speeches Sample Special-Occasion Speech Joseph Tuman, Swearing-In Ceremony for New U.S. Citizens Chapter Review GROUP COMMUNICATION Effective Group Leadership Selecting a Leader Leading Meetings Managing Conflict Effective Group Membership Three Types of Member Roles Tips for Participating in a Small Group Group Decision Making and the Reflective-Thinking Process Define the Problem Analyze the Problem Establish Criteria for Solving the Problem Generate Possible Solutions Select the Best Solution Delivering Group Presentations Symposium Panel Discussion Single Group Representative Chapter Review CIVIC ENGAGEMENT Civic Engagement and Its Importance to Society How Civic Engagement Benefits You Forums and Venues for Civic Engagement Applying Public Speaking Skills to Civic Engagement Invention Audience Analysis Organization Language and Style Chapter Review APPENDIX A: SPEECH CHOICES OUTLINE AND FULL-LENGTH SPEECH How Emigrants Use Smartphones: Speech Outline How Emigrants Use Smartphones: Full-Length Speech Why Student Athletes Should Be Paid: Speech Outline Student Athletes Should Be Paid: Full-Length Speech APPENDIX B: ADDITIONAL SAMPLE SPEECHES Sample Special Occasion Speech John McCain, Liberty Medal Ceremony Sample Persuasive Speech David Kruckenberg, Child Slavery and the Production of Chocolate Sample Persuasive Speech Michelle Bachelet, Reclaiming Public Spaces for the Empowerment of Women and Girls Notes Glossary Index