List of Figures ix Acknowledgments xi About the Authors xv Introduction xvii Part One Laying the Foundation for Power 1 One Six Powers of Making Thinking Visible 3 Fostering Deep Learning 6 Cultivating Engaged Students 7 Changing the Role of the Student and Teacher 9 Enhancing Our Formative Assessment Practice 11 Improving Learning (Even When Measured by Standardized Tests) 13 Developing Thinking Dispositions 17 Conclusion 19 Two Making Thinking Visible: A Goal and Set of Practices 21 Making Thinking Visible as a Goal of Teaching 23 Making Thinking Visible as a Set of Practices 24 Organizing Thinking Routines 33 Part Two Eighteen Powerful Routines 37 Three Routines for Engaging with Others 39 Give One Get One 42 Ladder of Feedback 50 The Leaderless Discussion 59 SAIL: Share-Ask-Ideas-Learned 67 Making Meaning 76 +1 Routine 86 Four Routines for Engaging with Ideas 95 Question Sorts 98 Peeling the Fruit 107 The Story Routine: Main-Side-Hidden 117 Beauty & Truth 124 NDA 132 Take Note 140 Five Routines for Engaging in Action 147 PG&E: Predict-Gather-Explain 150 ESP+I 158 Be-Sure-To 166 What? So What? Now What? 174 The 3 Y's 182 The 4 If 's 190 Part Three Realizing the Power 199 Six Using Thinking Routines for Maximum Effect 201 Planning for Thinking 204 Being Primed for Thinking 211 Pressing for Thinking 215 Positioning for Thinking 219 Seven Learning to Support One Another as We Make Thinking Visible 223 Beyond the Toolset: Developing Our Skills at Using the Tools 226 Beyond the Skill Set: The Mindsets That Motivate Action 231 Supports for Developing Skill Sets and Mindsets 233 In Conclusion 239 References 241 Index 245
RON RITCHHART is a Senior Research Associate at Harvard Project Zero and Fellow at the University of Melbourne, Australia. His current research focuses on developing intellectual character, making thinking visible, and promoting deep learning. MARK CHURCH has been an educator for over twenty years and has particular interest in helping teachers and school leaders think deeply about their efforts to cultivate thinking and learning opportunities for students. Ron Ritchhart and Mark Church (with Karin Morrison) are the coauthors of Making Thinking Visible.