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Manual de Gramática


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1.OVERVIEW. A. Sentence Components. B. Verb Structure. C. Sentence Structure. Independent Clauses. Main or Principal Clauses. Dependent or Subordinate Clauses. D. Subject-Verb Agreement. 2. NOUNS AND NOUN DETERMINERS. A. Nouns and Their Equivalents. Introduction. Definition. Noun Equivalents. Noun Companions. Nouns: Gender and Number. Gender (Genero). Number (Numero). Personal. B. Noun Determiners. Articles. Definite Articles. Subjects. Titles. Languages. Possessives vs. Articles. Indefinite Articles. Adjectives. Demonstrative Adjectives. Possessive Adjectives. Forms of Descriptive Adjectives. Common Adjective Endings. Adjectives with Short and Long Forms. Position of Descriptive Adjectives. Comparisons. Comparisons of Inequality. With Adverbs, Adjectives, and Nouns. With a Numerical Expression, Use de Instead of que. With a Verb or Clause as Second Part of Comparison. Comparisons of Equality. Tanto(-a, -os, -as) ... como. Tanto como. Tan ... como. Superlatives. 3. PRONOUNS. A. Personal Pronouns. Grammatical Functions of Personal Pronouns. Subject. Direct Object Complement. Indirect Object Complement with Direct Object. Indirect Object Complement without Direct Object. Transitivity. Subject Pronouns. Direct Object Pronouns. Formation and Usage. Stressed and Unstressed Object Pronouns (Direct or Indirect Object). Lo: the Neuter (Invariable) Pronoun. Indirect Object Pronouns. Required Repetitive Object Pronouns. Direct Object Pronouns. Indirect Object Pronouns. Order of Object Pronouns When Combined. Position of Object Pronouns. Prepositional Object Pronouns. B. Se. Introduction. Reflexive Pronouns. Reflexives. Reciprocals. Se me Construction: Accidental se. Impersonal se. Introduction. Agent Present (Subject of the Action: Stated). No Agent: Not Impersonal (Subject of the Action: Absent but Implied). No Agent: Impersonal (Subject of the Action: Absent and Irrelevant). Impersonal se with Inanimate Objects. Impersonal se with Persons. Impersonal se with Both Human and Inanimate Objects. Impersonal Reflexive Construction--uno. C. Demonstrative and Possessive Pronouns. Demonstrative Pronouns. Possessive Pronouns. D. Interrogatives. ?Que?. ?Cual?. ?Que? vs. ?Cual? with ser. How?. How? + Verb = ?Como?. How? + Adjective or Adverb ? ?Como?. Word Order. E. Exclamatives. !Que! + Noun. !Que! + Modified Noun. !Que! + Adjective. !Que! + Adverb. !Como! + Verb. !Cuanto! + Verb. !Cuanto(a)! + Noun. !Cuantos(as)! + Noun. !Quien! + Verb. F. Indefinites and Negatives. G. Relative Pronouns. Formation and Usage. Relative Pronouns without a Preposition. Relative Pronouns with a Preposition. El cual/el que. Que after a/de/en/con. Additional Uses. Lo que/lo cual (Invariable). El que. Lo que. Cuyo. Donde. Who. Interrogative Pronoun: ?Quien?. Relative Pronoun: que. El cual/el que. What. 4. PREPOSITIONS, ADVERBS, CONJUNCTIONS, AND TRANSITIONS. A. Prepositions. Function of Prepositions. Verbs Used without Prepositions. Individual Prepositions. A. Usage. Personal a. Expressions with a. Verbs with a. Con. Usage. Expressions with con. Verbs with con. De. Usage. Expressions with de. Verbs with de. En. Usage. Expressions with en. Verbs with en. Para. Usage. Expressions with para. Por. Usage. Expressions with por. Verbs with por. List of Expressions with Prepositions (English-Spanish). Review of Expressions with Prepositions. B. Adverbs. Definition. Adverbs Ending in -mente. Word Order. Multiple-Function Words. Adverbs of Time. Adverbs of Manner. Adverbs of Quantity. Adverbs of Confirmation, Doubt, or Negation. Adverbial Phrases. Adverbs of Place. Related Adverbs and Prepositions. C. Conjunctions. Usage. Conjunctions of Coordination. Conjunctions of Subordination. D. Transitions. 5. VERBS: FORMATION. A. Indicative Mood. Present Indicative. Regular Verbs. Stem-Changing Verbs. Spelling-Changing Verbs. Classified Irregular Verbs. Other Irregular Verbs. Aspects of the Past Indicative. Imperfect Indicative. Preterite. Present Perfect Indicative. Pluperfect Indicative. Future. Simple Future. Future Perfect. B. Conditional Mood. Present Conditional. Conditional Perfect. C. Subjunctive Mood. Present Subjunctive. Regular Verbs. Stem-Changing Verbs. Irregular Verbs. Imperfect Subjunctive. Present Perfect Subjunctive. Pluperfect Subjunctive. D. Imperative Mood. Direct Commands. Tu. Usted/ustedes. Vosotros. Nosotros. Indirect Commands. E. Infinitive. Present Infinitive. Perfect Infinitive. F. Participle. Present Participle or Gerund. Past Participle. 6. VERBS: USAGE. A. Present Indicative. B. Aspects of the Past Indicative Tense: Preterite vs. Imperfect and Pluperfect. Past Conditions, Beliefs - Imperfect. Changed Conditions, Reactions - Preterite. Actions, Single or Consecutive - Preterite. Habitual Actions or Events - Imperfect. Habitual Actions Limited in Time, Repeated Actions - Preterite. Actions - Beginning, Middle, End. Preterite: Beginning and/or End. Imperfect: Middle, in Progress, Interrupted. Imperfect as Parallel to the Present. Projected Actions/Indirect Discourse - Imperfect. Would - Contexts and Translations. Saber and conocer. Modal Auxiliaries in the Past. Acabar de + infinitive. Deber + infinitive. Ir a + infinitive. Poder + infinitive. Querer + infinitive. Tener que + infinitive. Ser in Sentences with Relative Clauses. The Preterite and the Present Perfect. The Pluperfect. C. Compound Tenses. Introduction. Perfect Tenses. Present Perfect Indicative. Future Perfect. Past Perfect (Pluperfect) Indicative. Conditional Perfect. Present Perfect Subjunctive. Pluperfect Subjunctive. Simple Progressive Tenses. Introduction. Present Progressive. Future Progressive. Past Progressive. Conditional Present Progressive. Subjunctive Present Progressive. Subjunctive Imperfect Progressive. Perfect Progressive Tenses. Introduction. Indicative Present Perfect Progressive. Indicative Future Perfect Progressive. Indicative Pluperfect Progressive. Conditional Perfect Progressive. Subjunctive Present Perfect Progressive. Subjunctive Pluperfect Progressive. Modal Auxiliaries. D. Ways of Expressing the Future. E. Conditional. Introduction. Courtesy with Conditional of Modal Auxiliaries. Hypothetical Situations with or without Condition Expressed with si. Future of the Past. Probability in the Past. F. Probability. G. Subjunctive. Introduction. Nominal Clauses. Definition and Usage. Subjunctive after Expressions of Emotion. Subjunctive after Expressions of Volition and Influence. Subjunctive after Expressions of Doubt and Negation of Reality. Subjunctive after Impersonal Expressions with ser. Adjectival Clauses. Definition. Usage. Adverbial Clauses. Definition. Usage. Sequence of Tenses. Introduction. Chronological Relativity. Aspect Relativity. Tense Relativity from Indicative to Subjunctive. Main Clause in the Present Set. Main Clause in the Past Set. If (si) Clauses. Sequence of Tenses. Como si (As If). Ojala. Expressions of Leave-Taking. H. Infinitives and Present Participles. Infinitives. Present Infinitive. Perfect Infinitive. Present Participles. I. Verbs Like gustar. Formation. Word Order. Verbs Similar to gustar. Articles. Changes in Meaning. J. Reflexive Verbs. K. Indirect Discourse. Introduction. Verb-Tense Changes. No Verb-Tense Changes. Person Changes. Time Changes. Other Changes. Connectives. This, That, and the Other. Verbs of Communication. A Note on Word Order with Indirect Interrogatives. 7. SER, ESTAR, HABER, HACER, AND TENER. A. Overview. B. Ser vs. estar. With Equal Elements: ser. With Adjectives. Predicate Adjectives. Aburrido (boring vs. bored). Bueno (good vs. in good health, tasty). Callado (quiet by nature vs. silent now). Ciego (blind vs. blinded figuratively or momentarily). Comodo (comfortable object vs. comfortable person). Frio (cold as norm or not, used with objects). Listo (clever [person or animal] vs. ready). Maduro (mature vs. ripe). Rico (wealthy vs. delicious). Verde (green vs. unripe). Vivo (smart, bright person vs. alive). Expressions with To Be. Impersonal Expressions. With Prepositions and Adverbs. De. Time and Place. With Past and Present Participles. With Present Participles. With Past Participles: Passive Voice and Resultant Condition. Formation of the Passive Voice. A Note on the Passive Voice. C. Estar vs. haber. D. Expressions with estar and tener. Expressions with estar. Expressions with tener. E. Time Expressions. Introduction. Counting Forward. Counting Backward. Duration. Counting Back from the Present. Counting Back from a Moment in the Past. Ago. 8. LEXICAL VARIATIONS. A. Introduction. B. Terms and Expressions. Acabar. Apply. Ask. At. Attend. Because. Become or Get. But. Come and Go. Despedir. Exit and Success. Go and Leave. Guide. Know. Learn. Meet. Order. Pensar. People vs. Machines. Play. Put. Realize. Serve. Spend. Take. Time. What. C. False Cognates and False Friends. 9. ORTHOGRAPHY. A. General Information. The Alphabet. Representation of Letters by Sound. B. Consonants: Spelling Issues. B, V. K, C, Qu, S. The Sound /k/. The Sounds /s/, /z/; seseo. The Letter s. The Letter c + e, i. Stem Changes for Verbs in -cer or -cir: c?z. Words Ending in -cion, -sion, -tion, -xion. G, Gu, Gu, J. The Sound /g/; Silent u; u. The Sound /j/. Verb Spelling Changes to Maintain the /j/ or /g/ Sound of the Stem. Verbs Ending in -ger /jer/ or -gir /jir/: g?j. Verbs Ending in -guir /gir/, -gar /gar/, -guar /guar/: gu?g; gu?gu. H. Pronunciation of the Letter h. Spelling with the Letter h. Homophones. X. The Letter x Pronounced as /s/. The Letter x Pronounced as /ks/. The Letter x Pronounced as /j/. Spelling with the Letter x. Ll, y, i. The Sound /y/. Spellings for the Sound /y/. Lists of Common Words Ending in -ia, -illa, and -ia. R, RR. The Sound /r/. The Sound /rr/. Spelling with r and rr. Soft d, r. Ch, Ph, Th ? C/Qu, F, T. Ch ? C/QU. Ph ? F. Th ? T. Double Consonants. C. Vowels and Accents. Syllabification. Consonants: Their Role in the Syllable. Multiple Vowels. Stress. Categorization of Words by Stress. Rules for Written Accents. Special Cases. Adverbs Ending in -mente. Monosyllables. Non-Monosyllabic Homonyms. Aun vs. aun. Solo. Demonstrative Pronouns. Exclamative and Interrogative Adjectives, Pronouns, or Adverbs. D. Linking between Words: Synalepha. Same Letter. Vowel + Vowel. Consonant + Vowel. E. Capitalization. F. Numbers. Cardinal Numbers. Ordinal Numbers. Fractions. G. Punctuation. Terminology. Differences between English and Spanish Punctuation. Questions and Exclamations. Dialogue. Quotations. End of Line Word Division. H. Dialectal Variation, Norm, Register. Dialectal Variation. Pronunciation. Vocabulary. Grammar. Norm. Register. Useful Websites. I. Summary of 2010 Ortografia Changes. Ejercicios 315. Verb Tables A-1-A-38. A. Lista de modelos de conjugacion. B. Modelos de conjugacion (Verb Tables). C. Mini-indice de verbos. Index.

About the Author

Zulma Iguina is a former senior lecturer in Spanish at Cornell University. Her academic background is in linguistics and literature, and she taught Spanish language at Cornell for more than 30 years. She worked intensively with novice teacher development while serving as coordinator for the elementary level, Spanish 121-122 for over a decade. She is the recipient of a Clark Award for Distinguished Teaching. Eleanor Dozier is a former senior lecturer in Spanish at Cornell University. Her undergraduate and first graduate work were conducted at the University of Arizona, where she studied French and Spanish literature. She continued her doctoral studies at Cornell University and remains All But Dissertation in French literature. She taught French language for 12 years, and taught the Spanish language for 30 years. She served as the faculty fellow for the Language House in Spanish for several years, and for the academic year 1998-1999 co-directed the Cornell-Michigan-Penn Program in Seville. Dozier also has served as associate chair for Language Instruction for the Department of Romance Studies since the fall of 2000.

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