PART ONEINTRODUCTION TO THE LIVING ANIMALEXERCISE 1The Microscope 3Exercise 1A: Compound Light Microscope 3Exercise 1B: Stereoscopic DissectingMicroscope 8Exercise 1C: Electron Microscope 9EXERCISE2Cell Structure and Division 13Exercise 2A: The Cell-Unit of ProtoplasmicOrganization 13Exercise 2B: Cell Division-Mitosis andCytokinesis 16EXERCISE3Gametogenesis and Embryology 25Exercise 3A: Meiosis-Maturation Division ofGerm Cells 25Exercise 3B: Cleavage Patterns-Spiral and RadialCleavage 36Exercise 3C: Frog Development 44EXERCISE4Tissue Structure and Function 47Exercise 4: Tissues Combined into Organs 54PARTTWOTHEDIVERSITY OF ANIMAL LIFEEXERCISE5Ecological Relationships of Animals 63Exercise 5A: A Study ofPopulation Growth, with Application of the Scientific Method 63Exercise 5B: Ecology ofa Freshwater Habitat 67EXERCISE6Introduction to Animal Taxonomy 77Exercise 6A: PhylogenyReconstruction-How to Make a Cladogram 78Exercise 6B: Use of aTaxonomic Key for Organism Identification 83EXERCISE7Unicellular Eukaryotes 89Exercise 7A: PhylumAmoebozoa-Amoeba and Others 89Exercise 7B: PhylaEuglenozoa and Viridiplantae-Euglena, Volvox, and Trypanosoma 97Exercise 7C: PhylumApicomplexa-Plasmodium and Gregarina 106Exercise 7D: PhylumCiliophora-Paramecium and Other Ciliates 109Experimenting inZoology: Effect of Temperature on the Locomotor Activity of Stentor 115Experimenting inZoology: Genetic Polymorphism in Tetrahymena 117EXERCISE8The Sponges 121Exercise 8: Class Calcispongiae-Sycon 121EXERCISE9The Radiate Animals 131Exercise 9A: Class Hydrozoa- Hydra, Obelia, and Gonionemus132Exercise 9B: Class Scyphozoa-Aurelia, a "True" Jellyfish138Exercise 9C: Class Anthozoa- Metridium, a Sea Anemone,and Astrangia, a Stony Coral 140Experimenting in Zoology: Predator Functional Response: FeedingRate in Hydra 147EXERCISE10The Flatworms 149Exercise 10A: Class Turbellaria- Planarians 150Exercise 10B: Class Trematoda- Digenetic Flukes 153Exercise 10C: Class Cestoda- Tapeworms 158Experimenting in Zoology: Planaria Regeneration Experiment 167EXERCISE11Nematodes and Four Small Protostome Phyla 171Exercise 11A: Phylum Nematoda -Ascaris and Others 172Exercise 11B: A Brief Look at Some Other Protostomes 179EXERCISE12The Molluscs 183Exercise 12A: Class Bivalvia = Pelecypoda)-Freshwater Clam 184Exercise 12B: Class Gastropoda-Pulmonate Land Snail 191Exercise 12C: Class Polyplacophora- Chitons 194Exercise 12D: Class Cephalopoda-Loligo, theSquid 195 EXERCISE 13 The Annelids 201 Exercise 13A: Class Errantia- Clamworm 202 Exercise 13B: Class Sedentaria Earthworm 204 Exercise 13C: Family Hirudinidae- Leech 215 Experimenting in Zoology: Behavior of Medicinal Leeches, Hirudomedicinalis 217 EXERCISE14 The Chelicerate Arthropods 219 Exercise 14: Chelicerate Arthropods-Horseshoe Crab and Garden Spider 220 EXERCISE15 The Crustacean Arthropods 227 Exercise 15A: Subphylum Crustacea- Crayfish,Lobsters, and Other Crustaceans 227 Experimenting in Zoology: The PhototacticBehavior of Daphnia 239 EXERCISE16 The Arthropods 241 Exercise 16A: Myriapods-Centipedes andMillipedes 241 Exercise 16B: Insects-Grasshopper andHoneybee 243 Exercise 16C: Insects-House Cricket 251 Exercise 16D: Metamorphosis of Drosophila254 Exercise 16E: Collectionand Classification of Insects 255 EXERCISE 17 The Echinoderms 265 Exercise 17A: Class Asteroidea-Sea Stars 266 Exercise 17B: Class Ophiuroidea-Brittle Stars 270 Exercise 17C: Class Echinoidea-Sea Urchins 273 Exercise 17D: Class Holothuroidea-Sea Cucumbers 275 Exercise 17E: Class Crinoidea-Feather Stars and Sea Lilies 278 EXERCISE18 Phylum Chordata: A Deuterostome Group 281 Exercise 18A: Subphylum Urochordata- Ciona, an Ascidian283 Exercise 18B: Subphylum Cephalochordata-Amphioxus 285 EXERCISE19 The Fishes-Lampreys, Sharks, and Bony Fishes 291 Exercise 19A: Class Petromyzontida- Lampreys (Ammocoete Larvaand Adult) 291 Exercise 19B: Class Chondrichthyes- Cartilaginous Fishes 296 Exercise 19C: Class Actinopterygii-Bony Fishes 301 Experimenting in Zoology: Agonistic Behavior in Paradise Fish, Macropodusopercularis 307 Experimenting in Zoology: Analysis of the Multiple Hemoglobin System in Carassiusauratus, Common Goldfish 309 EXERCISE 20 The Amphibians: Frogs 313 Exercise 20A: Behavior and Adaptations 314 Exercise 20B: Skeleton 318 Exercise 20C: Skeletal Muscles 320 Exercise 20D: Digestive, Respiratory, and Urogenital Systems 325Exercise 20E: Circulatory System 328 Exercise 20F: Nervous System 334 EXERCISE21 The Reptiles 337 Exercise 21 Painted Turtle 337 EXERCISE22 The Birds 343 Exercise 22 Pigeon 343 EXERCISE23 The Mammals: Fetal Pig 349 Exercise 23A: Skeleton 350 Exercise 23B: Muscular System 354 Exercise 23C: Digestive System 363 Exercise 23D: Urogenital System 368 Exercise 23E: Circulatory System 372 Exercise 23F: Nervous System 379 Exercise 23G: Respiratory System 384 Appendix A: Instructor's Resources for Implementing Exercises387 Appendix B: Sources of Living Material and Prepared Microslides420
Cleve Hickman is Professor Emeritus at Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA. He received his Ph.D. in Zoology from the University of British Columbia, did research in animal physiology for eight years, and taught zoology for over 30 years. He's made over 20 trips to the Galapagos Islands for research and as an instructor for student field trips Larry Roberts is currently teaching parasitology and marine biology at the University of Miami. He received his Ph.D. in Parasitology from Johns Hopkins University and is a coauthor of Foundations of Parasitology, 5/e. Past teaching affiliations include University of Massachusetts, Texas Tech University, and Florida International University. Dr. Roberts has authored numerous research articles and a title of related interest: Underwater World of Sport Diving. Allan Larson is an Associate Professor at Washington University, St. Louis, MO. He received his Ph.D. in Genetics at the University of California, Berkeley. His fields of specialization include Evolutionary Biology, Molecular Population Genetics and Systematics, and Amphibian Systematics. He's taught courses in general biology, evolution, and population biology.