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Economic Geology - Principles and Practice


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Table of Contents

Preface. Introduction. What are ore deposits? Mining in the stress field between society and environment. The mineral resources conundrum. Part I Metalliferous Ore Deposits. 1 Geological ore formation process systems (metallogenesis). Synopsis. 1.1 Magmatic Ore Formation Systems. 1.2 Supergene Ore Formation Systems. 1.3 Sedimentary Ore Formation Systems. 1.4 Diagenetic Ore Formation Systems. 1.5 Metamorphic and Metamorphosed Ore Deposits. 1.6 Metamorphogenic Ore Formation Systems. 1.7 Metallogeny ? Ore Deposit Formation in Space and Time. 1.8 Genetic Classification of Ore and Mineral Deposits. 1.9 Summary and Further Reading. 2 Economic geology of metals. Synopsis. 2.1 The Iron and Steel Metals. 2.2 Base Metals. 2.3 Precious Metals. 2.4 Light Metals. 2.5 Minor and Speciality Metals. 2.6 Summary and Further Reading. Part II Non-Metallic Minerals and Rocks. 3 Industrial minerals, earths and rocks. Synopsis. 3.1 Andalusite, Kyanite and Sillimanite. 3.2 Asbestos. 3.3 Barite and Celestite. 3.4 Bentonite (Smectite Rocks). 3.5 Boron. 3.6 Carbonate Rocks: Limestone, Calcite Marble, Marlstone, Dolomite. 3.7 Clay and Clay Rocks. 3.8 Diamond. 3.9 Diatomite and Tripoli. 3.10 Feldspar. 3.11 Fluorite. 3.12 Graphite. 3.12.1 Graphite deposit types. 3.13 Gypsum and Anhydrite. 3.14 Kaolin. 3.15 Magnesite. 3.16 Mica (Muscovite, Phlogopite, Vermiculite). 3.17 Olivine. 3.18 Phosphates. 3.19 Quartz and Silicon. 3.20 Quartzite. 3.21 Quartz Sand and Gravel. 3.22 Sodium Carbonate, Sulfate and Alum. 3.23 Sulphur. 3.24 Talc and Pyrophyllite. 3.25 Volcaniclastic Rocks. 3.26 Wollastonite. 3.27 Zeolites. 3.28 Summary and Further Reading. 4 Salt deposits (evaporites). Synopsis. 4.1 Salt Minerals and Salt Rocks. 4.2 The Formation of Salt Deposits. 4.3 Post-Depositional Fate of Salt Rocks. 4.4 From Exploration to Salt Mining. 4.5 Summary and Further Reading. Part III The Practice of Economic Geology. 5 Geological concepts and methods in the mining cycle: exploration, exploitation and closure of mines. Synopsis. 5.1 Economic Considerations. 5.2 The Search for Mineral Deposits (Exploration). 5.3 Development and Valuation of Mineral Deposits. 5.4 Mining and the Environment. 5.5 Deep Geological Disposal of Dangerous Waste. 5.6 Summary and Further Reading. Part IV Fossil Energy Raw Materials -- Coal, Oil and Gas. 6 Coal. Synopsis. 6.1 The Substance of Coal. 6.2 Peat Formation and Coal Deposits. 6.3 The Coalification Process. 6.4 Post-Depositional Changes of Coal Seams. 6.5 Applications of Coal Geology. 6.6 Summary and Further Reading. 7 Petroleum and natural gas deposits. Synopsis. 7.1 Species of Natural Bitumens, Gas and Kerogen, and their Properties. 7.2 The Origin of Petroleum and Natural Gas. 7.3 Formation of Petroleum and Natural Gas Deposits. 7.4 Exploring for Petroleum and Natural Gas Deposits. 7.5 The Exploitation of Petroleum and Natural Gas Deposits. 7.6 Tar Sand, Asphalt, Pyrobitumen and Shungite. 7.7 Oil Shales. 7.8 Environmental Aspects of Oil and Gas Production. 7.9 Summary and Further Reading. Epilogue. References. Index.

About the Author

Walter L. Pohl is Emeritus Professor and former Dean of the Faculty of Geosciences at the Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany, and a consulting geologist in economic, engineering and environmental geology. For more information visit


"The book provides an extensive overview of natural resourcesand societal issues associated with extracting raw materials."(Economic Geology, August 2013) "It is difficult to specify the readership that would benefit mostfrom this book, but advanced students of economic geology, miningengineering and environmental studies would certainly find much ofinterest by perusal of selected sections. Practitioners would alsogain insights into fields well beyond their specialities, which wascertainly the case with this reviewer. Economic Geology: Principlesand Practice merits a place on the shelves of all university andgeological society libraries. (Miner Deposita,2011) Tony Waltham writes, "For an impressive overview of a huge subject,this book must take some beating." (Geology Today, 1 March2012) "Overall, an excellent resource for earth science and geologystudents enrolled in mineral exploration and/or general mining andreclamation programs; also very useful to practicing economicgeologists/professionals involved in mining, mine reclamation, andenvironmental studies. Summing Up: Highly recommend."(Choice, 1 January 2012) "I highly recommend the landmark text book Economic Geology:Principles and Practice by Walter L. Pohl, to any students,professional geologists and others in the related industries, andanyone interested in mineral ores, and in the environmental aspectsof economic geology. This book is especially important is a time ofescalating demand for minerals and ores of all types, in a worldfacing ever increasing population and environmental andsustainability pressures." (Blog Business World, 10 October2011)

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