NTRODUCTION / The vernacular tradition and globalization / Sustainability / Attitudes to materials / A note on standards / About this book GENERAL PRINCIPLES / Properties of materials / Specific gravity / Size / Strength / Optical characteristics / Electrical conductivity / Colour and texture / Thermal properties / Acoustic properties / Deformation / Principles of assembly / Loads and reactions BUILDING MATERIALS / Stone / Igneous rocks / Sedimentary rocks / Metamorphic stone / Stone finishes and forms / Concrete / Strength classes / Step by step: Constructing a curved in situ / concrete retaining wall / Waterproof concrete / Ecoconcrete / Photocatalytic (depolluting) concrete / Reinforced concrete / Step by step: Constructing GRC rockwork / Concrete finishes / Stucco / Harling / Brick / Materials used in making bricks / Process of manufacture / Types of brick / The brick-wall bond / Paving bonds / Mortar / Jointing and pointing / Laying paving / Problems with brickwork / Step by step: Constructing an engineering- brick retaining wall / Metals / Forming and working metals / Iron / Cast iron / Wrought iron / Steel / Aluminium / Copper / Zinc / Lead / Alloys / Timber / Types of timber / Step by step: Constructing hardwood timber decking / Sustainability of timber / Strength / Moisture content and seasoning / Durability and ease of preservation / Glass / Modern manufacture / Applications in external works / Polymers (plastics and rubber) / Manufacturing and applications / Elastomers: rubber and synthetic rubber / Toxicity and health concerns associated with plastics and elastomers / Environmental concerns / Polymer degradation / Earth, turf and non-conventional materials / Compressed earth, cob and pise / Turf and peat walls ELEMENTS / Earthworks and topsoil in relation to structures / Topsoil / Groundwater / Protection of trees / Bearing capacity of soil / Cut and fill / Drainage / Mounds and landfill / Topsoil grading / Step by step: Forming a bund using clay subsoil / Retaining structures / Steps / Ramps and ramped steps / Introduction to retaining walls / Cantilever walls / Piled walls / Anchored walls ('tieback' walls) / The ha-ha / Soil reinforcement / Geotextiles as soil reinforcement / Walls / Materials used in wall construction / Design issues / Unit walls / Foundations and structure / Damp-proof courses (d. p. c.) / Movement joints (or expansion joints) / Drystone walls / Drystone wall types / Paving / Foundations / Rigid paving / Step by step: Rigid paving / Unit paving / Flexible paving / Edge restraint / Colour in paving / Porous paving / Drainage / Design of paving / Step by step: Flexible herringbone paving / Dealing with water / Introduction to pool construction / Informal pools and rigid structures / Step by step: Building a rigid pool / Step by step: Building a flexibly lined pool / Ponds, pools, lakes, canals, basins, rills and leats / Step by step: Constructing a rigid channel / Cascades, waterfalls and weirs ASSEMBLY / Fasteners and connections / Timber fixings / Mechanical connections / Nails / Screws / Bolts, rivets and plate connectors / Step by step: Assembling a timber pergola / Joints / Adhesives / Metal fixings / Compatability of metals, welding and brazing / Galvanic and electrolytic activity, rusting and staining / Connecting metals / Step by step: Steel screen detailing / Plastics PROTECTION AND FINISHES / Paints / Application of paints / Paints and environmental concerns / Protection of metals / Protection of timber / Wood preservatives / Varnish / Protection of masonry / Endmatter / Glossary / Further reading / Appendix of tables / Index / Picture credits / Acknowledgements
Robert Holden is a practising landscape architect. He teaches landscape architecture and garden design at the University of Greenwich, London. He is the author of New Landscape Design (Laurence King, 2003). Jamie Liversedge is a landscape architect who has worked on projects ranging from hotels and resorts in Dubai and Cyprus to parks in Hong Kong and Singapore. He teaches landscape architecture and garden design at the University of Greenwich, London.