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The Complete Whitewater Rafter
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Table of Contents

Introduction The First Splash; About the Author; A Little Help from My Friends; What Are You Getting Yourself Into?; How to Use This Book 1. The Evolution of Rafting: From Powell to Paddle Cats The Fremont Expeditions John Wesley Powell Nathaniel Galloway The Post-World War II Era The Self-Bailing Generation The Russian Influence Looking Toward Tomorrow 2. Get Wet: Your First Rafting Adventure Outfitters Other Ways to Get Wet Clubs and Organizations; Raft Rentals 3. Equipment: From Oars to Floors, Helmets to Hi-Floats Basic Raft Anatomy Tubes; Panels and Seams; Valves; Thwarts; Floors; Accessories; Footcups Materials Base Fabrics; Coatings Design Characteristics Length and Width; Tube Size; Symmetry; Rise; Waterline; Floors Catarafts Types of Catarafts; Cataraft Design; Characteristics; Rotocats and Plastic Cats Other Types of Rafts North American Rafts; Plohts Purchasing a Raft Traditional Rafts; Catarafts; Used Rafts Frames Traditional Raft Frames; Selecting a Frame; Other Considerations; Cataraft Frames; Cooler Frames Oars Oar Construction; Selecting Oars; Oar Length; Setting Up Oars; Pins and Clips; Oarlocks; Fine Tuning Paddles Essential Riverwear Clothing; Lifejackets; Helmets Saddle Up: Assembling Your Gear and Crew Inflating Your Raft Pumps; Inflating the Raft Rigging the Frame Loading Accessories Spare Oars; Spare Paddles; Bowlines; Handlines; Bail Buckets; Additional Gear Passengers in Oar Rafts Nonpaddlers; Paddle Assists/ Paddle Teams A Solid Foundation; Seating Arrangements; Varying the Size of the Paddle Team 5. River Morphology: The Dynamics of Running Water A Look Beneath the Surface Water Mechanics; Laminar Flows; Turbulent Flows; Chaos; Helical Currents; Meanders River Characteristics Volume; Gradient Surface Features Tongues; Upstream Vs; Standing Waves; Diagonal Waves; Haystacks; Breaking Waves and Stoppers; Pillows; Undercuts; Rooster Tails; Boils; Holes; Lowhead Dams and Weirs; Waterfalls; Eddies The Big Picture The Rating Game The AWA River-Rating Scale; Fine-Tuning the Scale 6. Propulsion Basics: Different Strokes for Different Boats Oar Strokes Backrowing; Portegee; Turning; Shipping; Rowing Sweep Boats and Plohts Paddle Strokes Get a Grip; Three Types of Paddle Strokes; Basic Power Strokes; Advanced Power Strokes; Turning Strokes; Bracing 7. Paddle Captaining: The Art of Whitewater Choreography The Pretrip Lecture Seating the Captain and Crew The Captain's Chair; Seating the Crew Guiding Strokes The Strokes; Experience Is the Key Paddle Commands Basic Commands; Advanced Commands; Fine-Tuning; Handling Lag Time; Handling Overstroking; Your Voice; The Seasoned Team 8. Whitewater: Running the Rapids Five Types of Maneuvers River Directions Staying Parallel with the Current Ferrying History; Oar Rafts; Paddle Rafts; Apparent Versus Real Course; Ferrying Around Bends Turns and Pivots Sideslips Eddy Maneuvers Putting on the Brakes; Entering Eddies; Staying in Eddies; Exiting Eddies; Capsizing Forces Heading Downriver Reading Rivers; The Two Cs The SAFE System Scout; Analyze; Formulate; Execute The Added Edge Bailing; Highsiding; Digging; Lowering Your Center of Gravity; Beaching Honing Your Skills 9. Safety and Rescue: Keeping Your Head and Gear Above Water Having What It Takes Pretrip Preparation; Time on the River; Pretrip Discussion Equipment Group Travel Lead and Sweep Rafts; Group Scouting and Rescue Portaging and Lining Self-Rescues Swimming; Rerighting Rafts; Active Swimming; Holes and Dams; Strainers and Sweepers; Pulling Swimmers into Rafts Rope Rescues Throw Bags; Getting Ropes to Swimmers; Belays River Crossings Solo Crossings; Group Crossings Other Rope Rescues Strong-Swimmer Rescue; Loose Horizontal Line; The Telfer Lower Wraps First Things First; Basic Rope Systems; Z-Drags First Aid 10. Advanced Rafting: Rafting on the Cutting Edge Preparation Skills and Conditioning; Choice of Raft; Accessories; Stowing Gear; The Class V Attitude Rafting in the Third Dimension Helpful Hydraulics; Waves; Holes; V-Holes; Eddies Boulders and Slots Boulders; Lowsiding Waterfalls and Steep Drops Irregular Ledges; Waterfalls Low- and High-Water Techniques Low-Water Trips; High-Water Trips A Quick Course in Steep Creeking Reading the Horizon; Slowing Your Descent R-2ing 11. Single-Day to Multiday Trips: Carrying Your Toys Planning Ahead Waterproof Containers Dry Bags; Ammo Cans and Dry Boxes Stowing Gear Safely 12. River Camping and Cookery: Life at the Riverside Inn Clothing and Camping Equipment Campsite Selection Wind and Water; The Riparian Environment Campfires Firepans; Campfire Cleanup; River Saunas Human Waste River Cookery Menu Planning; Packing Food; Coolers; Sorting Food; The Kitchen; Dutch Ovens; Dishwashing; Drinking Water; Garbage One Step Further: Rafting Alternatives River Exploration The Research Phase; Selecting the Crew; Equipment and Supplies; Safety; Getting to the River; Running the River Racing Types of Races; Prerace Tips; During the Race; Wildwater Tips Playboating Equipment; Skills; Playing on Waves; Playing in Holes 14. Stay in Shape: Gear Maintenance and Repair Raft Care Takedown, Rolling, and Storage Raft Repair Materials; The Workplace; Applying the Patch; Patching Tips; Major Repairs; Welding; D-Rings; Valves Oar Maintenance and Repair Riverwear Neoprene Clothing; Drysuits Other Equipment Lifejackets; Pumps 15. The Rest of the Story Becoming a Professional Guide Opening Doors; Getting Your Ticket to Ride; Guide-Training Schools; The Inside Track; Landing the Premier Jobs Whitewater Photography Equipment; Protecting Your Gear; Film Lighting and Exposure; Shooting Angles; The Learning Curve Rafting for the Physically Challenged Rafting with Children Start on the Right Foot; Raft Safely; Keep Them Entertained Other Whitewater Craft Inflatable Kayaks; Inflatable Canoes; Sit-on-Tops; Kayaks; Canoes; Riverboards Conservation--Preserving the River Resource Appendix: Safety Code of the American Whitewater Affiliation Water-Level Information United States Maps Canadian Maps Regional Guidebooks (U.S.) Local Guidebooks (U.S.) Local Guidebooks (Canada) International Guidebooks Books for Physically Challenged Rafters Additional Canada Information Periodicals Rafting Equipment Catalogs Rafting Manufacturers Portable Toilets Outfitters Organizations (U.S.) Outfitters Organizations (Canada) Private Boaters Organizations Rafting Schools Safety Instruction Organizations Conservation Groups Checklists Knots Glossary Index

About the Author

Jeff Bennett (Portland, OR) is an avid snowboarder and the author of The Essential

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