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Cisco Networking Essentials
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Table of Contents

Introduction xxiii Chapter 1 Networks 1 Describing Network Components 1 Defining the Benefits of Networks 2 Identifying the Requirements for a Network 5 Classifying Networks by Function 8 Understanding LANs 9 Understanding WANs 10 Defining Network Architectures 10 Understanding Peer-to-Peer Networks 11 Understanding Client-Server Networks 14 The Essentials and Beyond 17 Chapter 2 The OSI Model 19 Using Reference Models 19 Understanding the Benefits of Reference 21 Exploring Reference Model Examples 21 Introducing the Layers of the OSI Model 22 Understanding the Application Layer 23 Understanding the Presentation Layer 24 Understanding the Session Layer 26 Understanding the Transport Layer 26 Understanding the Network Layer 30 Understanding the Data-Link Layer 31 Understanding the Physical Layer 33 Describing the OSI Encapsulation Process 33 Identifying the Process on the Source Device 34 Identifying the Process on the Destination Device 35 The Essentials and Beyond 36 Chapter 3 TCP/IP 39 Understanding the TCP/IP Model 40 Exploring the Four Layers 41 Comparing the OSI and TCP/IP Models 44 Describing the TCP/IP Encapsulation Process 46 Understanding Data and PDUs 46 Describing the Contents of Data 47 Describing the Contents of Segments 47 Describing the Contents of Packets 47 Describing the Contents of Frames 47 Understanding the Conversion to Bits 48 Describing the Functions at the Transport Layer 50 Understanding TCP 50 Understanding UDP 51 Describing the Functions at the Internet Layer 52 Defining Logical Addressing 53 Performing Routing 54 Accomplishing Packet Forwarding 54 Describing the Functions of ARP 55 Illustrating the ARP Broadcast 55 Describing the Logic of MAC-to-IP-Address Conversion 57 The Essentials and Beyond 59 Chapter 4 Protocols 63 Understanding the Function of Protocols 64 Defining Routed Protocols 64 Defining Routing Protocols 64 Exploring Application Layer Protocols 65 Describing FTP 65 Describing TFTP 67 Describing SMTP 67 Describing DNS 69 Describing SNMP70 Exploring Transport Layer Protocols 72 Reviewing TCP 72 Reviewing UDP76 Exploring Internet Layer Protocols 77 Describing IP 77 Describing ARP 79 Describing ICMP 80 Describing IGMP 82 Exploring Network Access Layer Protocols 83 Defining Network Access Layer Protocols on the LAN 84 Defining Network Access Layer Protocols on the WAN 85 The Essentials and Beyond 86 Chapter 5 Physical and Logical Topologies 91 Designing the Physical Topology 91 Implementing a Bus Topology 92 Implementing a Ring Topology 93 Implementing a Star Topology 94 Implementing a Mesh Topology 96 Implementing a Hybrid Topology 97 Implementing a Point-to-Point Topology 98 Implementing a Point-to-Multipoint Topology 100 Designing the Logical Topology 101 Understanding the Token Ring Topology 101 Understanding the FDDI Ring Topology 102 Understanding the Star Topology 103 The Essentials and Beyond 105 Chapter 6 Numbering Systems 109 Exploring Binary Numbering 109 Understanding the Base-2 Numbering System 110 Understanding the Relationship between Binary and Computers 112 Exploring Hexadecimal Numbering 114 Understanding the Base-16 Numbering System 114 Identifying MAC Addresses 116 Applying Conversions 118 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion 118 Hex-to-Decimal Conversion 121 Binary-to-Hex Conversion 123 The Essentials and Beyond 124 Chapter 7 Classful IP Addressing 129 Describing the Function of IP Addresses 129 Identification 130 Segmentation 131 Identifying IP Address Types 132 Defining IP Address Classes 133 Identifying Network and Host Addresses 135 Describing Private IP Addresses and NAT 138 Utilizing Diagnostic Tools 139 Executing the ipconfig Command 141 Executing the ping Command 141 Executing the arp Command 142 Executing the traceroute Command 143 Understanding DHCP 143 Operations 143 Cisco DHCP 145 Introducing IPv6 146 IPv6 Address Format 146 IPv6 Address Types 147 Special IPv6 Addresses 148 The Essentials and Beyond 148 Chapter 8 Classless IP Addressing 153 Understanding the Limitations of Classful Networking 153 Exhaustion of the Class B Network Address Space 154 Unmanageable Routing Tables 154 Exhaustion of the 32-Bit IPv4 Address Space 155 Understanding the Benefi ts of Subnetting 155 Identifying Sources of Network Congestion 156 Deploying Subnetting as a Segmentation Tool 157 Describing the Components of CIDR 158 Introducing Classless Subnetting 158 Designing and Implementing CIDR 160 Understanding VLSM167 Summarization 171 The Essentials and Beyond 172 Chapter 9 Media 175 Selecting the Proper Media Type 175 Bandwidth 176 Security 176 Convenience 180 Cost 180 Understanding Cabling 181 Describing Cable Behavior and Characteristics 181 Describing Physical Implementations 183 Choosing the Correct Wiring Standard 187 Describing Wireless Standards191 Identifying Standards Bodies 191 Understanding 802.11 Amendments 192 Understanding Wireless LAN Components and Terminology 193 Describing CSMA/CA Operation 196 The Essentials and Beyond 198 Chapter 10 Network Devices 201 Describing Device Functions 201 Understanding Repeaters 202 Understanding Hubs 202 Understanding Bridges 203 Understanding Switches 205 Understanding Routers 209 Understanding Wireless Access Points and Wireless Routers 214 Understanding Device Placement Principles 216 Defining Broadcast Domains 216 Defining Collision Domains 217 Understanding the Cisco Three-Layer Model 220 The Essentials and Beyond 221 Chapter 11 LAN Operations 225 Understanding the Routing Process 225 Describing Routing Tables 226 Understanding Population Methods 229 Understanding Administrative Distance 231 Using Routing Protocols 234 Describing the Switching Process 243 Reviewing MAC and IP Addresses 243 Reviewing Contention Methods 244 Describing MAC Address Tables 246 Understanding Frame Forwarding 246 Describing End-to-End Communications 247 Understanding the Local LAN Process 248 Understanding the Remote Communication Process 249 The Essentials and Beyond 250 Chapter 12 Managing the Cisco IOS 253 Describing Components 253 Defining the Contents of RAM 254 Defining the Contents of NVRAM 255 Defining the Contents of Flash 255 Defining the Contents of ROM 256 Describing IOS Navigation 258 Connecting to the Device 258 Accessing User, Privileged, and Global Configuration Modes 262 Understanding and Managing the Boot Process 266 Understanding the Boot Process 267 Managing the IOS 270 Understanding Configuration Files 271 Managing the Configuration Register 272 The Essentials and Beyond 276 Chapter 13 Configuring Routers 281 Cabling the Router 281 Cabling Router to Router 284 Cabling Router to Switch 287 Cabling PC to Router 288 Cabling Router to CSU/DSU 290 Creating a Console Session 292 Connecting with the Console Cable 292 Connecting Through the USB Port 293 Connecting Through Telnet 294 Handling Initial Setup 295 Configuring Passwords 295 Interpreting Prompts 295 Configuring Privileged (Enable) Passwords 296 Configuring Enable Secret Passwords 297 Configuring Line Passwords 297 Configuring Interfaces 299 Accessing Interface Mode 299 Assigning an IP Address 300 Enabling the Interface 301 Verifying the Interface 301 Configuring a Router as a DHCP Server 303 Configuring WAN Interfaces 306 Saving Configuration Changes 308 The Essentials and Beyond 309 Chapter 14 Configuring Switches 315 Cabling the Switch 315 Cabling Switch to Switch 316 Cabling Router to Switch 317 Cabling Hosts to Switch 318 Creating a Session with the Switch 318 Creating a Session with the Console Cable 318 Creating a Session Through Telnet 320 Configuring Passwords321 Configuring Privileged (Enable) Passwords 321 Configuring Enable Secret Passwords 322 Configuring Line Passwords 322 Using the service password-encryption Command 322 Configuring Interfaces 323 Accessing Switchports and Using Switchport Mode323 Enabling the Port 324 Verifying the Port324 Understanding Advanced Switch Functions 325 Understanding VLANs 325 Configuring VLANs 325 Assigning Ports to VLANs 326 Understanding Trunk Ports 327 Configuring Trunk Links 328 Describing STP 328 Understanding Port Security 332 Limiting MAC Addresses 332 Implementing Sticky Mac 333 The Essentials and Beyond 333 Chapter 15 Configuring Static Routing 337 Populating the Routing Table 338 Using the ip route Command 338 Verifying the Route Table 340 Configuring Inter-VLAN Routing 341 Creating a Trunk Link with Encapsulation 342 Creating and Configuring Subinterfaces 343 Troubleshooting VLANs 345 Troubleshooting Trunk Links 346 Troubleshooting Inter-VLAN Routing 347 The Essentials and Beyond 348 Chapter 16 Configuring Dynamic Routing 353 Understanding Routing Protocols 353 Exploring RIP355 Exploring EIGRP 357 Exploring OSPF 358 Configuring Routing Protocols 358 Enabling a Routing Protocol and Accessing Router Mode 359 Defining the Interfaces on Which the Protocol Is Operational 360 Verifying the Routing Table 361 The Essentials and Beyond 367 Chapter 17 Device Security 371 Understanding Access Lists 371 Understanding Standard Access Lists 373 Understanding Extended Access Lists 373 Configuring Numbered Access Lists 374 Configuring Named Access Lists 376 Editing Access Lists Using Sequence Numbers 377 Understanding Network Address Translation (NAT) 378 Implementing Static NAT, Dynamic NAT, and PAT 380 Configuring a Switch or Router as an NTP Client or Server 383 Implementing and Requiring SSH 384 Limiting Remote Access with ACLs 387 The Essentials and Beyond 388 Appendix A Answers to Review Questions 393 Appendix B CCNA Essentials: Ancillary Exercises 407 Index 437

About the Author

About the Author Troy McMillan holds more than 30 IT certifications, including CCNA and CCNP. As a Product Developer and Technical Editor for Kaplan IT, Troy provides tools to help individuals prepare for technology certifications. As a full-time trainer, he teaches Cisco, Microsoft, CompTIA, and wireless classes, helping organizations train their technology personnel.

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