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Beyond Feelings


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Table of Contents

Preface Introduction PART I. THE CONTEXT 1. Who Are You? The Influence of Time and Place The Influence of Ideas The Influence of Mass Culture The "Science" of Manipulation The Influence of Psychology Becoming an Individual 2. What Is Critical Thinking? Mind, Brain, or Both? Critical Thinking Defined Characteristics of Critical Thinkers The Role of Intuition The Basic Activities of Critical Thinking Critical Thinking and Writing Critical Thinking and Discussion Avoiding Plagiarism 3. What Is Truth? Where Does It All Begin? Imperfect Perception Imperfect Memory Deficient Information Even the Wisest Can Err Truth Is Discovered, Not Created 4. What Does It Mean to Know? Requirements of Knowing Testing Your Own Knowledge How We Come to Know Why Knowing is Difficult A Cautionary Tail Is Faith a Form of Knowledge Obstacles to Knowledge 5. How Good Are Your Opinions? Opinions Can Be Mistaken Opinions on Moral Issues Even Experts Can Be Wrong Kinds of Errors Informed Versus Uninformed Opinion Forming Opinions Responsibly 6. What Is Evidence? Kinds of Evidence Evaluating Evidence What Constitutes "Sufficient" Evidence? 7. What Is Argument? The Parts of an Argument Evaluating Arguments More Difficult Arguments PART II. THE PITFALLS 8. The Basic Problem: "Mine Is Better" Egocentric People Ethnocentric People Controlling "Mine-Is-Better" Thinking 9. Errors of Perspective Poverty of Aspect Unwarranted Assumptions The Either/Or Outlook Mindless Conformity Absolutism Relativism Bias For or Against Change 10. Errors of Procedure Biased Consideration of Evidence Double Standard Hasty Conclusion Overgeneralization and Stereotyping Oversimplification The Post Hoc Fallacy 11. Errors of Expression Contradiction Arguing in a Circle Meaningless Statement Mistaken Authority False Analogy Irrational Appeal 12. Errors of Reaction Automatic Rejection Changing the Subject Shifting the Burden of Proof "Straw Man" Attacking the Critic 13. The Errors in Combination Errors of Perspective Errors of Procedure Errors of Expression Errors of Reaction Sample Combinations of Errors A Sensible View of Terminology PART III. A STRATEGY 14. Knowing Yourself Critical Thinking Inventory Using Your Inventory Challenge and Reward 15. Being Observant Observing People Observation in Science and Medicine The Range of Application Becoming More Observant Reflecting Your Observations 16. Selecting an Issue The Basic Rule: Less Is More How to Limit an Issue Sample Issue: Pornography Sample Issue: Boxing Sample Issue: Juvenile Crime Narrowing the Issue Further 17. Conducting Inquiry Working with Inconclusive Results Where to Look for Information Keeping Focused How Much Inquiry is Enough? Managing Lengthy Material 18. Forming a Judgment Evaluating Evidence Evaluating Your Sources' Arguments Making Important Distinctions Expressing Judgments 19. Persuading Others Guidelines for Persuasion An Unpersuasive Presentation A Persuasive Presentation Notes Index

About the Author

Vincent Ryan Ruggiero is internationally recognized as a pioneer in the movement to make creative and critical thinking central emphases in education and in society. The author of 22 books and over 500 essays, he is Professor of Humanities Emeritus at State University of New York, Delhi.

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