Introduction What is an FPGA? Digital and analog signal processing FPGA costs FPGA versus ASIC Understanding FPGA Resources General-purpose resources Special-purpose resources The company- or family-specific resources Several Principles and Methods of Resource Usage Control Reusing silicon resources by process sequencing Finding algorithms with less computation Using dedicated resources Minimizing supporting resources Remaining in control of the compilers Guideline on pipeline staging Using good libraries Examples of an FPGA in Daily Design Jobs LED illumination Simple sequence control with counters Histogram booking Temperature digitization of TMP03/04 devices Silicon serial number (DS2401) readout The ADC + FPGA Structure Preparing signals for the ADC Topics on averages Simple digital filters Simple data compression schemes Examples of FPGA in Front-End Electronics TDC in an FPGA based on multiple-phase clocks TDC in an FPGA based on delay chains Common timing reference distribution ADC implemented with an FPGA DAC implemented with an FPGA Zero-suppression and time stamp assignment Pipeline versus FIFO Clock-command combined carrier coding (C5) Parasitic event building Digital phase follower Multichannel deserialization Examples of an FPGA in Advanced Trigger Systems Trigger primitive creation Unrolling nested-loops, doublet finding Unrolling nested-loops, triplet finding Track fitter Examples of an FPGA Computation Pedestal and RMS Centre of gravity method of pulse time calculation Lookup table usage The enclosed loop microsequencer (ELMS) Radiation Issues Radiation effects FPGA applications with radiation issues SEE rates Special advantages and vulnerability of FPGAs in space Mitigation of SEU Time-over-Threshold: The Embedded Particle-Tracking Silicon Microscope (EPTSM) EPTSM system Time-over-threshold (TOT): analog ASIC PMFE Parallel-to-serial conversion FPGA function Appendix Index References appear at the end of each chapter.
Hartmut F.-W. Sadrozinski is a research physicist and adjunct professor at the University of California, Santa Cruz. A senior fellow of the IEEE, Dr. Sadrozinski has been working on the application of silicon sensors and front-end electronics in elementary particle physics and astrophysics for over 30 years. He is currently involved in the use of silicon sensors to support hadron therapy. He earned his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Jinyuan Wu is an electronics engineer in the Particle Physics Division of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Dr. Wu is a frequent lecturer at international workshops and IEEE conferences. He earned his Ph.D. in experimental high energy physics from Pennsylvania State University.